tugas (Cebu, Bohol, Negros Oriental, Siquijor, Samar, Leyte, Butuan, Bukidnon, Zamboanga); tugas lanhan, tugas pan (Bohol, Mindanao)
Common in both secondary and open primary forests at low to medium altitudes throughout the Philippines; very common and widely distributed in the provinces of Bohol, Cebu, Siquijor and in areas with corraline or limestone soil.
By seeds and cuttings.
Medium to large tree growing 25- 35 m high and 150 cm dbh; bole irregular, short, crooked, fluted; buttress thick, low, medium to moderately large; intolerant to shade; with a spreading crown; partially sheds its leaves during the latter part of the dry season.
Trifoliate but simple at seedling stage; opposite or whorled; ovate to lanceolate; 0.5- 1.5 cm long; base obtuse or broadly rounded, apex acute to acuminate; largest leaf located at the center; upper surface dark green, lower surface light green; petiole 10 cm long; closely related to lingo-lingo (Viticipremna philippinensis) but latter has 5 leaflets.
Petals bluish to lavender, terminal to subterminal; male and female borne on different stalks.
Berry, rounded, dark blue to blackish when ripe, 1-seeded, 0.5-0.8 cm in diameter.
Outer bark light brown to gray, smooth to slightly fissured, peels off when mature; inner bark pale yellow to bright orange.
One of the hardest woods, used in general construction where strength and durability are required; ideal for high-value furniture, door panels, jambs, carvings, novelty items, railroad ties and bridges.
Used as fodder.
Used for shelterbelts and planted in reforestation projects in the Philippines.
Wood and bark have curative effects on wounds and poisonous bites; wood extract used to treat diarrhea, jaundice and swelling of tissues.